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The 2023 Farm Bill: Part One

The Future of U.S. Farm Policy

The U.S. Farm Bill is a multiyear legislative package with key programs and initiatives to provide food for low-income households and support the American Farmer’s ability to feed a growing population.

In a rapidly changing world, the Farm Bill is an essential part of ensuring America’s domestic food system remains resilient. AgAmerica’s whitepaper, The 2023 Farm Bill: What to Expect for the Future of American Ag Policy, is part one of a two-part farm publication series. In this whitepaper, you will find insights from Chief Economist Dr. John Penson and Dr. Cliff Shelton as they discuss the 12 Farm Bill titles, share firsthand farmer insight, and provide policy considerations for each major Farm Bill title.

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farm bill titles_1 commodities
farm bill titles_2 conservation
farm bill titles_3 trade
farm bill titles_4 nutrition
farm bill titles_5 credit
farm bill titles_6 rural development
farm bill titles_7 research
farm bill titles_8 forestry
farm bill titles_9 energy
farm bill titles_10 horticulture
farm bill titles_11 crop insurance
farm bill titles_12 miscellaneous
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
01. Commodities
  • Added in 2014 during a period of low commodity prices.
  • Includes programs like Price Loss Coverage (PLC) and Agriculture Risk Coverage (ALC).
  • Accounted for seven percent of 2018 Farm Bill funding but varies depending on the market.
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
02. Conservation
  • Added to Farm Bill in 1985.
  • Accounted for seven percent of funding in the 2018 Farm Bill.
  • Divided into five categories: Working lands, land retirement, easements, loans and grants, and compliance.
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
03. Trade
  • Focuses on international food assistance programs like Food for Peace (FFP).
  • Provides export credit guarantees through the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC).
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
04. Nutrition
  • Added to the Farm Bill in 1973.
  • Estimated to account for approximately 80 percent of the 2023 Farm Bill.
  • This Farm Bill title covers key affordable food programs, including the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
05. Credit
  • First included as its own Farm Bill title in the 1990s.
  • New provisions were added in 2014 to support beginning farmers.
  • Programs under the Credit Farm Bill Title are essential, especially during periods of tight credit conditions.
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
06. Rural Development
  • First included in the Farm Bill in the 1990s.
  • Supports business expansion, infrastructure development, and healthcare initiatives in rural communities.
  • Rural healthcare shortages and broadband connectivity issues are at the forefront of rural development.
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
07. Research
  • One of the original Farm Bill titles, originating from the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862.
  • Many believe this Farm Bill title is woefully underfunded.
  • Biological advancements, automated mechanizations, food safety and security, and climate change are among the top requests for research and technical support for farmers.
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
08. Forestry
  • Added to the Farm Bill in 2002.
  • Federal forest management is critical to mitigating wildfire risk.
  • Promoting forest stewardship and advancing forestry science both domestically and internationally falls under this Farm Bill title.
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
09. Energy
  • Added to the Farm Bill in 2002.
  • Programs under this title typically promote the use of crops for biofuel.
  • Major initiatives include corn-based ethanol, wind farms, and anaerobic digesters.
  • Fortifying investment in these activities helps generate economic development in rural areas, improve environmental conditions, and enhance energy security.
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
10. Horticulture
  • Added to the Farm Bill in 2008.
  • This title covers farmers markets, local food programs, organic farming certification programs, and more.
  • COVID-related supply chain disruptions and worker shortages are among the top challenges facing this industry right now.
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
11. Crop Insurance
  • A valuable financial risk management service for farmers that was added to the 1938 Farm Bill.
  • Insured 450 million acres under the Federal Crop Insurance Program (FCIP) in 2021.
  • Accounted for nine percent of total funding in the 2018 Farm Bill.
The 12 Farm Bill Titles
12. Miscellanceous
  • Added in the 2014 Farm Bill as a catch-all category for remaining Farm Bill topics.
  • Issues that fall under this title include animal welfare, military veteran programs, underserved farmer initiatives, and more.
Exclusive Insights
The Four Major Farm Bill Titles

Legislative Considerations for U.S. Policymakers

Policymaker Summary Sheet

Ensure the voice of agriculture is heard. Download the full policymaker summary sheet to learn more about what major action items lawmakers should keep in mind for the 2023 Farm Bill.

"The federal crop insurance program must be reformed to encourage farmers to adapt to the rapidly changing climate before costs spiral even more out of control."

Anne Schechinger

Midwest Director at the Environmental Working Group (EWG)
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